| REFERENCES |
1. Miyazawa Kenji and his times
1.1 The World of Miyazawa Kenji page, with various information, discussion, an essay by Roger Pulvers, and publications and links.
1.2 Hanamaki city page with photos and essays about its most famous son. For a map of Hanamaki, see this one from MapFan or another map site.
1.3 Miyazawa Kenji he no tabi. Tokyo: Bunshun Bunko, 1996. This is a pocket-size collection of photos of the poet's environment then and now, with essays on his life and art. It gives a good idea of the materials which are displayed at the Miyazawa Kenji Kinenkan in Hanamaki.
1.4 Formerly online: (1) Chronology in Japanese of the poet's life. (See also ref. 1.8, pp. 147-152.)(2) Good reproduction of the photo on which the postage stamp portrait is based.
1.5 Iwate Nippou and the poet; this was the local newspaper, to which Miyazawa contributed. Its obituary article on the poet can be read in ref. 1.9, p. 96. Two full pages of the paper, which include contributions by the poet, are reproduced in ref. 1.8, pp. 88, 89; see also p. 86.
1.6 Mikiso Hane, Peasants, Rebels, & Outcastes. The Underside of Modern Japan. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
1.7 (1) Miyazawa Kenji Kinenkan, pamphlet guide. (2) Hanamaki City Miyazawa Kenji Museum, an English translation.
1.8 Hirogari yuku Kenji uchuu 19 seiki kara 21 seki he "The expanding Kenji universe from the 19th century into the 21st." Hanamaki: Miyazawa Kenji Ihatoubukan, 1997. This is a record of an exhibition of photos and documents held during the centenary celebration of Miyazawa's birth.
1.9 Miyazawa Kenji (Shinchou Nihon bungaku arubamu 12). Tokyo: Shinchousha, 1984. This collection of historical photos, drawings, and other Kenji memorabilia is more extensive than ref. 1.3.
1.10 Wild Bird Society of Japan, A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Tokyo, New York, London: Kodansha, 1982.
1.11 Hanamaki shi 1:12,000 (Iwate Ken 4, Toshi Chizu, eariamappu). Tokyo: Heibunsha, no date.
2.1 Miyazawa Kenji zenshuu, the complete works in 10 vols. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobou, 1992-1995.
2.2 Miyazawa Kenji no shi no sekai page, with a chronological guide to download of the complete poems.
2.3 Search and retrieval page for the complete poems and for the stories.
2.4 Hiroaki Sato, trans., Spring & Asura. Poems of Kenji Miyazawa. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1972.
2.5 Roger Pulvers, trans., Miyazawa Kenji shishuu. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobou, 1997. With Japanese text.
2.6 Geoffrey Bownas and Anthony Thwaite, The Penguin Book of Japanese Verse. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964, pp. 201-2. Contains the translation of Ame ni mo makezu used here on the illustrations page.
2.7 Yoshida Seimi, ed., Miyazawa Kenji no hi. zenkokuhen "Miyazawa Kenji monuments nationwide compilation." Hanamaki: Hanamaki shi bunka-dantai kyougikai "Hanamaki City cultural association conference," 2000. Photos, poem texts, and notes on 91 Miyazawa monuments, mostly around Hanamaki, Morioka, and elsewhere in Iwate Prefecture.
2.8 Sakakibara Mitsu, arr. and keyboards, Hoshi meguri no uta. Kenji Miyazawa Kakyokushuu. Kenji Song Collection, ITOON CD, IT-941101. Ten tracks, 9 text selections, in simple, modern arrangements. Only 4 tracks have vocals, and just 4 have music by Miyazawa. TSUZU's website tentatively dates the CD to 1996, the year before the centenary celebration of Miyazawa's birth. He appreciates it for "warmly reproducing the simple Kenji sound" (Miyazawa Kenji and Operetta). See also his other CD notices.
3.1 Bibliography of Japanese paperback editions in print, published by Kadokawa, Shuueisha, Shinchou, etc. Kadokawa announced publication of "the complete children's stories" (zen-douwa) in 9 volumes in 1996, the centenary of the poet's birth. The homonym douwa meaning "fable, cautionary tale" often seems applicable to these texts. As a teller of tales, a maker of myths, Miyazawa might perhaps be dubbed a modern descendant of those nameless sources whose work is invoked by the Nihon shoki. That subject would be good for another page.
3.2 Download page for the stories.
3.3 John Bester, trans., Once and Forever. The Tales of Kenji Miyazawa. Tokyo, New York, London: Kodansha International, 1972.A selection of these stories, with illustrations, was published as Winds from Afar. Tokyo and Palo Alto: Kodansha International, 1972.
3.4 Download page for translations of five other stories (George Wallace, David Sulz, trans.).
3.5 Ginga tetsudou no yoru. Tokyo: Kadokawa Bunko, 2002.
3.6 Download page for the text of Ginga tetsudou no yoru.
3.7 NHK radio broadcasts, Aoki Yuko, reader; these were originally heard on the Sunday evening (Japan time) program Rajio bungeikan :
(1) Ginga tetsudou no yoru, in 4 parts, at least twice since 1995. The story was also rebroadcast in 2003 on the overnight program Rajio shinyabin. Most recently, it was heard on August 16 through 19 (in the eastern USA) at 0920 (am) EDT, 1220 (pm) UTC, 2220 Japan time at 11705 kHz on the 25-meter short-wave band. This reading was my introduction to the imagination of Miyazawa and to his lucid, flowing language.
(2) The stories Tsukiyo no kedamono "Animals in the moonlit night" and Suisenzuki no yokka "The 4th of the Daffodil Moon," February 29, 2004. (3) The story Serohiki no Goushu "Goushu the cellist," heard sometime in 2003.
3.8 Roger Pulvers, trans., Ginga tetsudou no yoru. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobou, 1997. With Japanese text.
3.9 Sarah M. Strong, trans., Night of the Milky Way Railway. Armonk, NY and London: M.E. Sharpe, 1991. With a Reader's Guide to this text and to Miyazawa Kenji.
3.10 Night on the Galactic Railroad, with English subtitles, 115 minutes. New York: Central Park Media video CPM 1334, 1995; original Japanese version, Asahi Group, 1985. I have not searched for other anime versions of Kenji stories; there is at least one of Serohiki no Goushu "Goushu the cellist."
3.11 Iihatoubo nougakkou no haru "Spring at the Ihatov Agricultural School." Tokyo: Kadokawa Bunko, Heisei 8/1996.
3.12 Irisawa Yasuo, ed. and comm., 'Ginga tetsudou no yoru' no genkou no subete "The Complete Manuscript of Ginga tetsudou no yoru" (photoreproduction). Hanamaki: Miyazawa Kenji Kinenkan, 1997.
4. "Cloud signal" / Kumo no shingou
4.1 (1) Commentary on the poem. On the same page: (2) text of this poem on the monument at "the place connected with the four sugi"; (3) photo of the "four sugi" plaque. Further: (4) For all the text on the monument, plus additional notes, see ref. 2.7, p. 86. (A future page, "Locale," will illustrate this neighborhood of Hanamaki.)
4.2 Translations: (1) Gary Snyder, The Back Country. New York: New Directions, 1968, p. 118; (2) Roger Pulvers, ref. 2.5, p. 193.
5. Ancient Japan
5.1 Nihongi. Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697, trans. by W. G. Aston. Reprint, Rutland, Vt. and Tokyo: William E. Tuttle, 1972.
5.2 Kojiki, trans. by Donald L. Phillipi. Tokyo and Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969.
5.3 Japanese Text Initiative webpage. From this entry point, go to browse works of classical and modern Japanese literature, or go to input Japanese words for text search and retrieval.
5.4 (1) The Manyoshu. The Nippon Hakujutsu Shinkokai Translation of One Thousand Poems with the Texts in Romaji. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1965. (2) An identical edition with omission of the romaji texts.
5.5 Murasaki Shikibu, The Tale of Genji, trans. by Edward G. Seidensticker. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978.
5.6 Kokinshu. A Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern, trans. by Laurel Rasplica Rodd. Boston: Cheng & Tsui Company, 1996.
5.7 J. Edward Kidder, Jr., The Birth of Japanese Art. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1964. See especially the discussion of haniwa birds, pp. 133-38.
5.8 Fumio Miki, Haniwa (Arts of Japan 8). New York: Weatherill; and Tokyo: Shibundo, 1974.
5.9 Zukai haniwa no hon "The illustrated book of haniwa," ed. by Friends of the Gunma Prefectural Museum of History. Tokyo: Tokyo Bijutsu Co., 1996.
5.10 Haniwa no juujiro. kodai-toukoku no kouryuu to chiikisei "Haniwa crossroads: their interchange and distribution in the ancient period in the eastern region," exhibition catalog. Matsudo, Chiba Pref.: Matsudo City Museum, 2002.
5.11 Fusa-no-kuni no kofun to haniwa "Haniwa and tomb mounds of Fusa-no-kuni." (Fusa-no-kuni was the Heian-period name for the province comprising most of present-day Chiba Prefecture.) Shibayama City Kofun and Haniwa Museum, Chiba Pref., no date.
5.12 Mildred Tahara, trans., Tales of Yamato. A Tenth-Century Poem-Tale. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1980.
5.13 Steven D. Carter, trans., Traditional Japanese Poetry. An Anthology. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.
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